Mar ch 201 1. That resulted in about 250km of movement along the Alpine Fault but in the opposite direction to the way the fault is moving today. The business owners, Vickie and Gray Eatwell, realised the potential for the venture when giving permission to scientists to cross their land en route to the Gaunt Creek site. Geologically, this is a high probability. This causes seismic waves to travel fastest parallel to these features, a phenomenon known as anisotropy. You have the Alpine Fault breaking up this fragment of continent that split away from Gondwana," Lamb said. The Fault Core surrounds the PSZ with up to 30 metres of mixed gouge and the green clay-rich mash geologists call ultra-cataclasite. The Alpine Fault then runs the length of the South Island just west of the Southern Alps to near Lewis Pass in the central northern section of the island. The idea occurred to him only about six months ago, Lamb said. A few wisps of chimney smoke hang low in the air. "Unfortunately, the GeoNet station coverage is also very poor in this area, so there could be significant location errors with respect to the quake's location. It's GPS that has changed things from when we started working there 20 or 30 years ago, when you didn't really know where you were when you got into the bush.". Horizontal movement of the Alpine Fault is about 30m per 1,000 years — very fast by global standards. Approximate rupture dates are 1717AD, 1620 AD, 1450 AD, and 1100 AD. Compared with the expected magnitude 8-plus quake, the magnitude 5.5 was "in the noise" and less likely to signal something than perhaps a magnitude 6.5 might have, he says. This is a classic exposure of the Alpine Fault. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. READ MORE: * Big Bay quake on Sunday largest along Alpine Fault since 2001 * Videos show devastating impact across South Island if Alpine Fault ruptures * Questions over future of West Coast's SH6 if Alpine Fault quake hits * New study says Alpine Fault quake interval shorter than thought: GNS Science * Scientists examine Alpine Fault for signs of stress following earthquake. Victoria University of Wellington earthquake scientist Professor Rupert Sutherland says the quake did not have slip or vertical movements "consistent with surface observations of the Alpine Fault near there". But how close it really is to the end of its seismic cycle is still as unknown as it was when all this research began several decades ago. "We can take the geology more as a given," Langridge says. Source: GNS Science . The Alpine Fault, and the recurved arc structures (orocline) in the late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Rangitata Orogen, are two of the first-order structures of the New Zealand subcontinent. It is a challenge to find appropriate sites where there are long records of past fault movements, and where it is possible to date sediments. "Basically what we showed was that from the moment the Alpine Fault started to move in the direction it's moving today it more or less moved at the same rate." The Pacific Plate is upthrust on the left, with the Australian Plate on the right of the scarp. "It could well be that the event is further on in time. Once you've seen the hump, it's difficult to unsee it. "You spend a lot of time checking. ALPINE FAULT ... dominant movement on the fault is horizontal as shown by circle symbols at the base of the figure (arrow away/towards). Here, the main part of South Island is being thrust over the Australian Plate on a bearing of about 250 degrees. The Alpine Fault ruptures in a massive earthquake every 300 years, on average, and the last big one was in 1717. The movement of the two plates results and a LOT of earthquakes. 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The movement of the New Zealand continental block also resulted in a marine transgression and by the Oligocene period (about 35 million years ago) most of the country was submerged. Dr Caroline Orchiston explains the Alpine Fault and the damage the earthquake will have. Presentation given in Christchurch in March 2015. This burgeoning interest in the inevitable quake is good news for those communicating its dangers. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand’s South Island. No other community has such a vested interest in this slumbering monster, which does a bad job of hiding directly below the tourist mecca's main street, its petrol station, its police station and motels. The overall movement follows a dextral strike-slip movement, which can be reconstructed by close observation of plutons in the area. ", The Alpine Fault started as part of the break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana, with New Zealand starting to drift away from Antarctica about 80 million years ago.simo. Whataroa's Alpine Fault Tours takes people to the well-known exposure of the fault at the nearby Gaunt Creek. The only other places straddling the fault almost to the same extent are St Arnaud, the Gloriavale community at Haupiri and Fox Glacier village just down State Highway 6, though there are plenty of settlements and towns within five to 10 kilometres of its path. The following night, in Hokitika, 130 people pack the Westland RSA rooms to take part in the roadshow. Recent research (published … Folding in late Quaternary sediments indicates active tilting of sediments at up to 0.4°/ka and variations in local uplift/subsidence rates of up to 4 mm/yr. This fault has ruptured approximately four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. But the fact remains that, even after dozens of studies, some with international researchers, costing millions of dollars, nothing has changed - nobody can predict when the Alpine Fault is going to rip asunder. The next largest known fault displacement on land was on the Altyn Tagh Fault in Tibet, with a total movement of about 475km. The Alpine Fault scarp crosses the main street of Franz Josef directly under the petrol station. It's fair to say such engagement was not on their agenda. 52. assistant with the Geological Survey in 1934, he studied geology. It’s part of the sliding plate boundary. It is a challenge to find appropriate sites where there are long records of past fault movements, and where it is possible to date sediments. contemporaneous with Alpine Fault movement Huntly N. C. Cutten a a Geology Department, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand Published online: 09 Feb 2012. Movement occurs during very large earthquakes approximately every 300 years, with the last one happening 300 years ago in 1717AD. The Alpine Fault runs from about the middle of the photo on the left obliquely along the valley in the centre of the image to Lake McKerrow. There are a lot of serious faces as the grim scenario is explained. Franz Josef is quiet. The movement on faults causes fractures and alignment of minerals in the adjacent rocks. A zone of uncertainty is shown in association with the mapping of the main rupture trace. The zone of uncertainty is doubled on the Hangingwall side of the fault to account for the increased fault deformation due to bending and warping of the upper plate. >.< This is a classic exposure of the Alpine Fault. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. Funded to the tune of about $650,000 by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, with similar contributions from the scientific community, it fills a gap in terms of the effects the impending earthquake will have on people living in communities such as Franz Josef and on South Island infrastructure. The PSZ has accommodated most of the Alpine Fault’s strike-slip movement in the past, and will do so again in the future. Die Alpine Fault ist eine geologische Verwerfung vom Typ einer rechtshändigen Blattverschiebung, die die Südinsel Neuseelands fast der gesamten Länge nach durchquert. A new study has found West Coast rain plays a role in causing ruptures in New Zealand's major Alpine Fault. The Alpine Fault, which runs up the spine of the South Island, has ruptured five times in the past 1100 years - producing an earthquake of between magnitude 7 and 8 each time. The Alpine Fault Magnitude 8 collaboration is a three-year partnership of the South Island's six emergency management groups and features scientists from universities and Crown research institutes as well as emergency services personnel, iwi members and health-authority workers. This fault system consists of many different smaller parts. As these two plates move against each other enormous pressure builds up which must eventually be released through earth movement. Below is a close up of the Alpine Fault. Alpine Fault quake expected NZASE article 2019 Scientists estimate a 30 percent likelihood in the next 50 years of a magnitude 8 or higher (M8+) earth-quake along 400km of the Alpine Fault, a strength about three times greater than the 7.8 Kaikoura quake in 2016. In nearby Whataroa, Elisabeth Frankish​ is opening up the Alpine Fault Tours shop. Such community engagement from the scientists is a far cry from just a decade ago. The last great magnitude 8-plus quake it generated was in 1717, give or take a year or two. The finding underscored the fact the Alpine Fault was the big seismic hazard in the South Island and had been for a "very, very long time", Lamb said. Big Bay in northern Southland with Lake McKerrow on the right. A member of the audience asks about aftershocks. The surface rupture in Kaikōura was around 180km of fault – in this Alpine Fault event, we're talking about at least twice that length.". "The current seismicity of the Alpine Fault is very low, but our aftershock modelling suggests that huge amounts of earthquakes will occur on the fault in the weeks, months and more after a major earthquake. part-time at university in W … But it is worth remembering the devastation from the Kaikōura quake would pale in comparison with what is expected in the Alpine Fault quake. Journal o/Geology and Geophysics Vol. When will the Alpine Fault next rupture? This early scientific experiment shows us that the Alpine Fault does not move gradually – there has been no slow fault movement at this site. Along the Alpine Fault the plates are not only moving past each other, they are also moving towards each other. Amid the pelting rain, there's a steady stream of people making their way to the Alpine Theatre for a presentation by AF8's science lead, Dr Caroline Orchiston, of the University of Otago, and Dr Rob Langridge, a senior earthquake scientist at GNS Science. Alpine Fault. Without it, there would be no uplift forming the Southern Alps, no rain forest and unique fauna on the western side of the divide, no hot foehn nor'wester blasting down the Canterbury Plains. It occurred in an area that already has relatively high seismicity, and there have been other quakes with similar magnitudes in this general area in the recent past. The Alpine Fault ruptures in a massive earthquake every 300 years, on average, and the last big one was in 1717. "But we can't rule out that it was on the Alpine Fault. "We put together this team of people who came at it from lots of different directions to make sure this was right, that we hadn't made some terrible mistake and missed something.". Fault movement can also offset landscape features, and streams may develop right-angle bends where they cross faults. "I don't think anybody in their wildest dreams would have thought that displacements on the fault could be so large, and also change direction so dramatically through time," Associate Professor Dr Simon Lamb, from Victoria's School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, said. N.Z. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. Shallow Fluid Movement in the Hanging Wall of the Alpine Fault ... i Other slips formed post-quake lakes behind rock dams, which posed a major hazard when they failed and released tonnes of water downhill. Instead, residents can think more about preparedness and other possible scenarios. Geologically, this is a high probability. Mar ch 201 1. Introduction: Although the Alpine Fault has the potential to cause catastrophic damage on the West Coast, and elsewhere in the South Island, should there be major movement along all or part of its length, there has been no such movement in historical times. Alpine Fault movement The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. An hour and a half later, the meeting winds up. Scientists and engineers drilled into the fault several years ago and are still analysing what they found. the Alpine fault in central South Island than at any other part of the plate boundary through New Zealand [Evison, 1971; Eberhart-Phillips, 1995]. 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